Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPaCK)
According to Punya Mishra, the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge framework (TPaCK) is in addition to Lee Shulman's framework which was first described in 1986. Shulman believed that teachers needed an understanding of relationship between pedagogical and content knowledge. Mishra and Koehler argue that there is an additional knowledge for teachers now: technological knowledge. This framework "highlights complex relationships that exist between content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge" (Archambault & Crippen, 2009).
There are seven areas of knowledge in this framework - I know, you stop and say "but there are just three areas??" This framework breaks down to: Content knowledge, Pedgagocial knowledge, Technology knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, technological content knowledge, technological pedagogical knowledge, and finally the technological pedagogical content knowledge.
I think one of the most important aspects of this framework is that at the heart of TPaCK is knowing that the three areas of knowledge cannot be isolated. For proper integrating, there needs to be a connection between the three areas.
Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition (SAMR)
Image the creation of Dr. Ruben Puentedura, Ph.D. http://www.hippasus.com/rrpweblog/
I like to start with TPaCK as an introduction to integrating technology. It's just a food for thought to me because your content and pedgogy change when technology is introduced. I know some might argue differently, but SAMR shows that...I'm right.
So, if we start at the bottom with Substitution you are doing the same thing you would do without technology without any modifications. Think note taking.
Bump up to the next level: Augmentation. Once again, our task is not changed but there are some improvements but still just a substitute. Okay, go back to your note taking using Word. You've reached augmented level by using spell check, word count, or a thesaurus.
Modification continues to have the same outcome but it's been upgraded - so the product has changed. Modification asks the question "does the media enhance the message?" An example for modification would have students create something collaboratively and use multimedia tools.
Redefinition is doing something that cannot be achieved without technology. Think of blogging: you are posting on the internet so the audience is the world and the feedback is key - we cannot do the same
Technology Integration Matrix (TIM)
One of the final pieces to my integration puzzle is my good friend TIM. This matrix "illustrates how teachers can use technology to enhance learning for K-12 students" (FCIT 2011). I've presented on TIM during several professional development series. The matrix, which can be found here, provides examples of integration at different levels. SAMR gives you four strong starting points from no real change but enhancement to a total transformation - TIM simply enhances this. According to TIM there are five levels of technology integration: entry, adoption, adaptation, infusion and transformation. There are also five characterizations of the learning environment: active, collaborative, constructive, authentic, and goal directed. I think one of the biggest misconceptions teachers have had about the matrix is that it looks like a rubric. As a teacher, we know that one side is a 100% and the other is a 0 - we all want an A+. Keep in mind, the matrix is different and it is NOT a rubric!
Image found at http://iantrail.wordpress.com/technology-integration-matrix/